How Climate Change Affects The Ocean - All About Forex

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean – Climate change says the ocean has long been affected by human-caused global warming. As the planet’s largest carbon reservoir, the ocean absorbs excess heat and energy released by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases trapped in the Earth’s system. Today, the ocean has absorbed about 90 percent of the heat created by increased emissions.

Excess heat and energy warm the ocean, causing temperature changes to cause parallel cascading effects, including melting ice, rising sea levels, marine heat waves, and ocean acidification.

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

These changes ultimately have long-term impacts on marine biodiversity and the lives and livelihoods of coastal communities, including the 680 million people who live in low-lying coastal areas, the nearly 2 billion who live in half of the world’s megacities that are coastal. Almost half of the world’s population (3.3 billion) depends on fish protein, and almost 60 million people worldwide work in fisheries and aquaculture.

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Sea level rise has accelerated in recent decades due to increased ice loss in the world’s polar regions. The latest data from the World Meteorological Organization shows that in 2021 the average global sea level reached a new record, with an average rise of 4.5 millimeters per year between 2013 and 2021.

As tropical cyclones intensify, sea level rise exacerbates extreme events such as hurricanes, catastrophic hurricanes, and coastal hazards such as flooding, erosion and landslides, which will now occur at least once a year in many places. Historically, such events have occurred once in a century.

In addition, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that several regions such as the western tropical Pacific, southwest Pacific, north Pacific, southwest Indian Ocean, and south Atlantic are facing significant sea level rise. get up

Sea heat waves have doubled in frequency and become longer, more intense and wider. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says human influence has been the main driver of ocean warming seen since the 1970s.

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Most heat waves have occurred since 2006. by 2015, resulting in widespread coral bleaching and reef loss. in 2021 nearly 60 percent of the world’s ocean surface has experienced at least one marine heat wave. The Environment Program says every coral reef in the world could bleach by the end of the century if waters continue to warm.

Coral bleaching occurs when reefs lose life-sustaining microscopic algae during times of stress. The last global bleaching event started in 2014. and continued through 2017, covering the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans.

As temperatures rise, the risk of irreversible loss of marine and coastal ecosystems increases. Large-scale changes are being seen today, including damage to the coral reefs and mangroves that support ocean life, and the migration of species to higher latitudes and altitudes where the water can be cooler.

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

The latest calculations of the Education, Science and Culture Organization warn that by 2100 more than half of the world’s marine species may become extinct. With today’s temperature increase of 1.1°C, about 60 percent of the world’s marine ecosystems are already degraded or used unsustainably. A warming of 1.5°C threatens to destroy 70-90% of coral reefs, while a rise of 2°C means almost 100% loss, a point of no return.

How Climate Change Affect The Ocean

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Climate change is here. There are many ways to adapt to what is happening and what is to come. Check out the ActNow campaign for more tips. How is climate change affecting coral reefs? Various effects of climate change are changing the ocean. these changes severely affect coral reef ecosystems.

Climate change is the biggest global threat to coral reef ecosystems. Scientific evidence now clearly shows that the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans are warming, and that these changes are largely driven by human-made greenhouse gases.

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As temperatures rise, mass coral bleaching and infectious disease outbreaks become more common. In addition, carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere into the ocean has already begun to reduce the rate of calcification of reef-building and reef-associated organisms, altering seawater chemistry by lowering pH. This process is called ocean acidification.

Climate change will affect coral reef ecosystems through rising sea levels, changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical storms, and changes in ocean circulation patterns. All of these impacts combine to dramatically alter ecosystem function and the goods and services that coral reef ecosystems provide to people around the world.

Increasing levels of greenhouse gases due to human activities are causing climate change and ocean acidification. Climate change = ocean change. The world’s oceans are a giant reservoir that absorbs carbon dioxide (CO

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

The burning of fossil fuels to produce heat and electricity, the production of some industrial products, animal husbandry, crop fertilization and deforestation contribute to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate change causes:

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THREATS TO CORAL REEFS Land pollution Severe stress on coral reef ecosystems is caused by land-based sources, especially toxic substances, sediments and nutrients.

THREATS TO CORAL REEFS Overfishing Many coastal and island communities depend on coral reef fisheries, but overfishing can deplete key reef species and harm coral habitats. As climate change tightens its grip, the effects are felt across the planet. The global ocean plays a key role and so far absorbs most of the excess carbon dioxide and heat produced by human activity. But she is also vulnerable. Several significant changes are already underway, and climate disruption in our seas looks set to worsen.

About 90% of the excess heat trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases is ultimately absorbed by the world’s oceans. Because the oceans are so vast, the change in seawater temperature may seem small; the surface layer of the sea has warmed by a little more than 0.5C in the last century. That’s still enough to cause major disruptions, and warming is accelerating.

When objects are heated, they expand, become less dense and take up more space. Oceans are no different. Indeed, from 1993 to 2010 thermal expansion has increased sea level by an average of 1.1 millimeters per year, accounting for most of the total rise we’ve seen.

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From 1993 to 2010 the total observed sea-level rise averaged 3.2 mm per year from a variety of other sources, including water accumulated on land, such as snow. (Drawing by Manuel Bortoletti/Dialogue Ocean China)

Warmer water also affects the atmosphere above it. Rising sea surface temperatures are associated with stronger hurricanes and tropical cyclones, which could lead to an increase in the number of strongest Category 4 or 5 hurricanes hitting islands and coastal areas. Warmer water can also dissolve less carbon dioxide, meaning more of it will remain in the atmosphere to accelerate global warming.

As on land, rising ocean temperatures cause damaging heat waves. They occur when the water temperature is above average for at least five consecutive days due to unusual weather conditions or water currents. However, they can take months or even years. A marine heat wave dubbed “The Blob” hovered over the North Pacific between 2013 and 2015. and killed a million seabirds off the west coast of the United States.

How Climate Change Affects The Ocean

When carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it reacts to form carbonic acid, a relatively weak acid, but enough to change the pH of seawater, which is naturally alkaline. Since the industrial revolution, dissolved carbon dioxide is estimated to have lowered the average pH of the upper oceans by 0.1 pH units, from about 8.2 to 8.1 (7 being neutral).

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This change doesn’t seem like much, but since pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, it actually represents about a 30% increase in acidity. This has some impact on seawater chemistry and the ecosystems that depend on it.

Increasing acidity is particularly bad news for crustaceans and other marine animals that use the mineral calcium carbonate to build their shells and exoskeletons. More acidic water may contain less of this mineral, making it less available to so-called calcifying organisms such as oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow-water corals, deep-water corals, and calcareous plankton. Worse, the change in chemistry promotes the dissolution of existing carbonate structures.

Corals are particularly vulnerable. Experiments on a small section of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef show that artificially reducing carbon dioxide in seawater, thereby restoring pH to pre-industrial levels, increases coral calcification by 7%. Then, when scientists increased carbon dioxide levels, thereby reducing ocean pH to levels expected later this century, calcification dropped by a third.

As climate change continues, many scientists believe that the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica will inevitably collapse and melt completely, eventually dumping enough water into the oceans to raise global sea levels by several meters. It will take hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, but the melting is accelerating. The UN Climate Organization now predicts that a

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